The following modules are
under development as training sessions aimed at assisting teachers in
becoming proficient in the area of classroom management and
Have a Plan?
Teacher success, in relation to both student learning and teacher
efficacy, can often be traced to the ability of the teacher to manage
the classroom. Research shows that effective classroom organization and
management during the first few weeks of school are crucial in
determining expectations, behavior patterns, and procedures that will
persist throughout the school year. Much of the instruction and social
interaction that occurs during the months after September can be traced
directly or indirectly to the way teachers initially establish
instructional and social systems during the first weeks.
Classroom management, student discipline, and issues related to
organization are among the most commonly reported problems by teachers
in their first years (Veenman, 1986). Harry Wong (1998) suggests that
classroom organization and management includes all of the things that a
teacher must do towards two ends:
- To foster student involvement and cooperation in all classroom
- To establish a productive working environment.
Successful teachers know how to make an environment that is
stimulating and inviting. Room arrangements and displays must be
attractive, but also functional. Quality instruction requires that
teacher use materials other than assigned textbooks and workbooks. If
teachers begin collecting and organizing these items before school
begins, planning richer and varied lessons becomes routine, makes the
teacher more productive, and reduces work-related stress.
Effective Classroom Management?
Edmund Emmer and Carolyn Evertson (1981) state that effective
classroom management consists of teacher behaviors that produce high
levels of student involvement in classroom activities, minimal amounts
of student behavior that interfere with the teacherís or other
studentsí work, and efficient use of instructional time. Teachers that
are effective classroom managers have:
Planned rules and
Systematically taught these to students
Organized instruction to maximize student task engagement and
Communicated directions and expectations to students.
A well-managed classroom is a task-oriented and
Harry Wong, 1998.
In a task-oriented environment, students understand what is
expected and how to succeed. Work is focused on learning and students
are able to achieve the objectives.
When students understand the rules and procedures, they can follow
through with the expectations and know what is supposed to happen in
the classroom. They also know what consequences will occur when the
expectations are not met.
What Do We Need
to Know About Students?
To manage a classroom effectively, it is critical for teachers to
understand the developmental progress of students. Specifically,
understanding child and adolescent growth and development, as well as
issues of studentsí cognitive and cultural diversity, is essential for
laying the foundation of an effective and positive learning environment.
An effective teacher understands child growth and development.
- Children develop through predictable stages.
- Growth is deeply influenced by culture, personality, and
- Social and physical development and intelligence do not proceed
for all children at the same rate.
An effective teacher understands issues that affect adolescent growth
- Children need to feel valued.
- Learners need to have fun and freedom.
- Learning needs to be practical and applicable.
- Mistakes arise from inexperience.
- Peer pressure is intense for teens.
- Emotional energy in teens runs high.
An effective teacher recognizes cognitive and cultural diversity.
- Students learn through different modalities, styles, and a
variety of multiple intelligences.
- Learning is affected by studentsí cultural perceptions and
Organizing Your Classroom
- Establishing a Positive Climate
- Developing Rules, Routines, and
- Assigning and Managing Work
- Preparing for Instruction
- Managing Behavior
- Maintaining Momentum
New Teacher Resource Handbook (Revised,
2001), Prince Georgeís County Public Schools.
The Standards for Excellence in Teaching (Revised, 2000),
Prince Georgeís County Public Schools.
Evertson, Carolyn M. and Alene H. Harris, Classroom
Organization and Management Program. Vanderbilt University,
Nashville, TN. 1994.
Marzano, Robert, et al, A Different Kind of Classroom:
Teaching with Dimensions of Learning. ASCD, Alexandria, VA.
Niebrand, Chris, Elizabeth Horn, and Robin Holmes, The
Pocket Mentor: A Handbook for Teachers. J. Weston Walch,
Portland, ME. 1992.
Rowley, James B., High Performance Mentoring. Crowin
Press, Thousand Oaks, CA. 2000.
Thompson, Julia G., Discipline Survival Kit for the
Secondary Teacher. Center for Applied Research in Education,
West Nyack, NY. 1998.
Wong, Harry K. and Rosemary T. Wong, The First Days of
School. Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc., Mountain View, CA.
Wood, Chip, Yardsticks: Children in the Classroom Ages 4-14.
Northeast Foundation for Children, Greenfield, MA. 1997.